In this article, we discussed the nutritional and health/medical relevance of mango particularly in prevention and cure of diarrhoea, cancer, diabetes and more. Please, read to the end as the post has different information at different stages.

Nutritional Value of Mango

Mango is attractive undoubtedly as as results of its high nutritional value and as being affordable too. The fruit may be a superb source of vitamins and minerals. However, nutritional composition may vary supported the varieties, growing conditions and degree of the ripeness.

Ripe VS Unripe Mango 

The nutritional value of ripe mango has been reported by food experts to be approximately 60 kcal per 100 g fruit. Generally, ripe mango has higher percentage of water content when put next to unripe mango. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose are determined to be the most component of carbohydrates within the ripe mango.

Carotenoids like; β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, luteoxanthin isomers, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin (all-trans and cis) are pro-vitamin A that are found abundantly in mango. The yellow-orange color of mango exocarp and mesocarp are formed by carotenoids. 

vitamin A is vital for vision, growth, cellular differentiation, and system integrity. Ten times higher amount of beta-carotene is found in ripe mango while only trace amount is detected in unripe mango. 

Increasing quantity of mevalonic acid which can be a precursor of carotenoids is noticed during ripening stage of mango. vitamin C also constitutes one of the foremost nutrients in mango but the content decreases during ripening. apart from that, vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin) and vitamin E are present in this fruit. Minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium could be found in this fruit as well.

 Additionally, mango is  rich in several kinds of antioxidants and phytochemicals like phenolics.

Medicinal Values Of Mango 

All the parts of tree including the leaves and barks of M. indica (Mango) are found to possess numerous medicinal properties. mango plant has been used to treat many ailments where it acts as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic, anti-obesity, anti- inflammatory, anti-diarrhoea, analgesic, and anti-cancer. Mango pulp, leaves, stem bark, and peel are rich in antioxidants and possess radical scavenging properties. Free radicals are responsible for cell damage by attacking important macromolecules and cause homeostatic disruption. Therefore, continuous free radicals may cause tissue damage which can eventually contribute to diseases like; cardiovascular, disease, cataract and cancer. 

On the other hand, antioxidants play huge role as potent radical terminator and are known to prevent diseases like cancer, degeneration, neurodegeneration and also immunodeficiency disorders.

It has been reported that M. indica (Mango) is loaded with many phenolic compounds like acid, mangiferin, catechin, epicatechin, beta-carotene and vitamin C. Thus, ingestion of any parts of the plant may provide protection from getting diseases that are associated with radical accumulation within the body. However, the general antioxidant capacities vary between the kinds of mango.

Mango leaf extracts has also been reported to possess powerful anti-diabetic properties. The effect of oral treatment with mango leaf extracts on blood glucose levels of six normal and twelve diabetic rats of both sexes were studied in the past. 

The findings showed that the extracts were able to reduce blood sugar in both normal blood glucose level (normoglycaemia) also as in high blood sugar level (hyperglycaemia). 

More so, Studies have shown that it's simpler in type 2 diabetes compared to type 1 diabetes. The extracts were found to induce the β-cells in pancreas to secrete more insulin which subsequently reduced the blood sugar level.

 Another possible mechanism of action could be because of the extracts that caused the reduction in intestinal glucose absorption. Previous researches by experts indicated that mango leaf extracts are often possibly used to alleviate the medical conditions of diabetic patients.

On the other hand, hyperlipidaemia could also be a standard problem in type 2 diabetic patients. during a study on the effect of mangiferin with exercise on blood lipids which conducted on genetically induced type 2 diabetic male KK-Aymice, the researcher found that the extracted mangiferin ingestion with exercise showed a far better reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels because of metabolic improvement compared to exercise alone.

In a similar research as such, stem bark and leaf extracts were tested through both in vivo using eighteen male rats and in vitro to review their lipid metabolisms properties. 

This study showed that both extracts significantly reduced pancreatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase. this might reduce the intestinal absorption of fat and acid uptake of adipocytes. 

The stem bark and leaf extracts also down regulated genes that are responsible for lipoprotein lipase, increased faecal fat excretion and reduced serum glucose. This showed that the plant can regulate the lipid metabolism which may prevent insulin resistance and also indirectly possesses the anti-obesity property.

Vimang is an aqueous decoction of M. indica (Mango) stem bark extract which is widely utilized in pharmaceutical formulations in Cuba. It has been reported to possess strong anti inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities. In vivo studies on mice, rats and guinea pigs revealed that it had been able to reduce carrageenan  and formalin induced oedema and thus the effect is analogous to those common anti inflammatory drugs within the market like indomethacin. Besides, the ethanolic extract of mango leaves have the potential of analgesic effect. In vitro studies elucidated that the mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory effect of Vimangcanact by inhibiting the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and human synovial secretory phospholipase (PL) A2.

Kernel of mango has been traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. Studies have revealed the mechanism of action of the kernel extracts. it had been reported that it had been able to inhibit contractility of jejunum. 

The effect was immediate but short lived or the wash out period is transient compared to the reference drug, loperamide. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of the extracts could be because of the presence of tannic acids and tannin.

Mangoes even have some impacts on most of the cancers tested because of its high phenolic and flavanoid content but were best with breast and colon cancers. 

It's radical scavenging property that forestalls DNA damage which is that the basis cause for cancer development. 

Mango peel was found to possess high radical scavenging property and anti proliferative effect on cancer cells compared to the flesh. Besides mango flesh and peel, the kernel also has tremendous anti proliferative properties. 

A study conducted by Bakar showed that the ethanolic extract of the kernel from Mango species was able to suppress the proliferation of both hormone and non-hormone dependent carcinoma cells. it had been found that cytotoxicity of the cells was achieved via programmed necrobiosis or apoptosis which is an ultimate target of most cancer chemotherapy drugs. the same effect was also observed in colorectal cancer cells.

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